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Wives of the Prophet
She is Aa'ishah, the daughter of Abu Bakr (radiallahu anhu) (see his lineage in this article) through Umm Roomaan bint Aamir bin Uwaymir bin Abd Shams bin Itaab bin Udhaynah bin Subay' bin Dahmaan bin al-Haarith bin al-Ghanam bin Maalik al-Kinaaniyyah, and she was born after the messengership by around four years or so.
The Virtues of Aa'ishah: Part 3 - The Great Scholar and Reference Point For the Companions
Al-Tirmidhi narrates in Kitab al-Manaaqib in "Chapter: The Virtues of Aa'isah (may Allaah be pleased with her)" from Abu Moosaa who said, "Never did any hadeeth become difficult for us, the companions of Allaah's Messenger, and we asked Aa'ishah except that we found she had knowledge regarding it." Saheeh (Saheeh Sunan al-Tirmidhi, no. 3883).
Al-Tirmidhi narrates in Kitab al-Manaaqib in "Chapter: The Virtues of Aa'isah (may Allaah be pleased with her)" from Moosaa bin Talhah, who said, "I have not seen anyone more eloquent (afsah) than Aa'ishah." Saheeh (Saheeh Sunan al-Tirmidhi, no. 3884).
From Masrooq who was asked, "Was Aa'ishah (radiallaahu anhaa) proficient in al-Faraa'id (laws of inheritance)?" He said: By Allaah, I saw the most senior of the Companions of the Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) asking her about al-Faraa'id. Saheeh, related by Ibn Sa'd in al-Tabaqaat (8/66), al-Haakim in al-Mustadrak (4/11) and al-Darimi related it in his Sunan (2/48). And it is also related with the following: It was said to Masrooq, "Was Aa'ishah (radiallaahu anhaa) proficient in al-Faraa'id (laws of inheritance)?" and he replied, "Yes, by Him in whose hand is my soul, I saw the Shaykhs from the most senior Companions of Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) asking her about al-Faraa'id. Takhreej is same as above.
From Sa'eed bin al-Musayyab that Abu Moosaa al-Ash'ari (radiallaahu anhu) said to Aa'ishah, "The differing of the Companions of Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) on a matter has burdened me and I am repulsed that I should mention it to you." She said, "What is it?" He said, "A man has intercourse with his wife but then becomes sluggish and does not ejaculate." She said, "When the circumcised part extends into the circumcised part ghusl (ritual purification) is obligatory." Then Abu Moosaa said, "I shall not ask anyone about this from anyone after you." Related by Malik in al-Muwatta (1/67), Abd al-Razzaaq in his Musannaf (1/248) and Ibn Hibbaan in his Sahih (3/456).
From Hisham bin Urwah, narrating from his father (Urwah) who said, "I accompanied Aa'ishah (radiallaahu anhaa) [taking knowledge from her] until I said before her death by four or five years, "If she died today, I would not have been remorseful over anything that I missed from her (regarding knowledge) [due to having acquired an abundance of it already], for I did not see anyone more knowledgeable of a verse that was revealed, nor an obligation, nor a Sunnah, and I do not know of anyone more knowledgeable of poetry and its transmission, and nor of a day of the days of [of the history] of the Arabs, and nor of lineage and nor of such and and such and nor of judgements and nor of medicinal treatment than her. So I said to her, "O Mother, where did you learn medicine?" She said, "When I used to be ill, something would be prescribed for me, and a person would become ill and would be prescribed something and it would benefit and I would hear the people prescribing for each other, and I would memorize it all. Imaam Ahmad in al-Musnad (6/67), Abu Nu'aym in al-Hilyah (2/49), and al-Haakim in al-Mustadrak (4/11). And in a narration, from Hisham bin Urwah from his father, who said, "I have not sat with anyone more knowledgeable of the hadeeth of Allaah's Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), nor of judgements, nor of the days of jaahiliyyah, nor of poetry, and nor more knowledgeable of an obligation nor of medicine than Aa'ishah (radiallaahu anhaa). So I said to her, 'Where did you learn medicine?' She said, 'I used to hear the people prescribing things for each other, and I would memorize it'."
Aa'ishah (radiallaahu anhaa) lived for fifty years after the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), and she has narrated around 2200 ahaadeeth. And she also narrated from her father, Abu Bakr, Umar, Fatimah, Sa'd bin Abi Waqqaas, Usayd bin Hudayr and others (radiallaahu anhum).
As for the Companions who narrated from her, they include Umar and his son Abdullah, Abu Hurayrah, Abu Mooosaa (al-Ash'ari), Zayd bin Khaalid, Ibn Abbaas, Rabee'ah bin Amr al-Jurashee, Abd Allaah bin Aamir, Umm Kulthum, her nephews, al-Qaasim and Abd Allaah (sons of Muhammad bin Abi Bakr), and her nieces Hafsah and Asmaa (bint Abd al-Rahmaan bin Abi Bakr), and her two nephews Abd Allaah and Urwah (sons of al-Zubayr bin al-Awwaam through Asmaa bint Abi Bakr), and the grandsons of Asmaa, Abbaad and Habeeb who are the sons of Abdullah bin al-Zubayr.Summary
Aa'ishah (radiallaahu anhaa):
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